When I was growing up in East Texas, I remember this idea quite clearly expounded, either in Sunday School or at church proper each Sunday morning, namely, that white people were superior to darker-skinned people, and darker-skinned people were darker-skinned because they had all been cursed by God as a race. At the time, I didn't question it. I was basically "brainwashed" like all the other innocent children.
I cannot tell when when I quit believing that, if I ever did even believe it. Believing something is quite different from being aware of it.
The article is quite long so I will paste only a few snips. Long but worthwhile reading.
The dark rigidity of fundamentalist America: a view from the inside